The obvious impossibility reveals evolution for the fraud it is. Chance could not even produce the basic enzymes. But enzymes serve astonishingly complex functions, a fact which adds further astronomical odds to the already impossible.
Consider the clotting of blood, in which enzymes play a vital role. Imagine the billions of animals that would have died before this incredible process was perfected by chance! In his 1996 book, Darwin’s Black Box, Behe writes:
“Blood clotting is a very complex, intricately woven system…of interdependent protein parts. The absence of, or significant defects in, any one of a number of the components causes the system to fail: blood does not clot at the proper time or at the proper place.
“Animals with blood-clotting cascades have roughly…30,000 gene pieces. TPA [Tissue Plasminogen Activator] has four different types of domains…. The odds of getting those four domains together is 30,000 to the fourth power…. The same problem of ultra-slim odds would trouble the appearance of prothrombin…fibrinogen…plasminogen, proaccelerin, [etc., each essential to the clotting process]…. The universe doesn’t have time to wait….
“The odds of getting TPA and its activator together [is so small as] not to be expected to happen even if the universe’s ten-billion year life were compressed into a single second and relived every second for tell billion years. [Even] worse…Darwin’s mechanism of natural selection would actually hinder the formation of irreducibly complex systems such as the clotting cascade….”
There are thousands of intricate systems in the body, each of which is incredibly complex. Consider the immune system:
“The internal defense system of vertebrates is dizzyingly complicated…. The first problem…is how to recognize an invader. Bacterial cells have to be distinguished from blood cells; viruses have to be distinguished from connective tissue.
“There are billions of different kinds of antibodies….
“The scientific literature has no answers to the question of the origin of the immune system…. How the body acquired tolerance to its own tissues is still obscure, but whatever the mechanism, we know one thing: a system of self-toleration had to be present from the start of the immune system….
“Whichever way we turn, a gradualistic account of the immune system is blocked by multiple interwoven requirements…. The complexity of the system dooms all Darwinian explanations to frustration….
“No one at Harvard University, no one at the National Institutes of Health, no member of the National Academy of Sciences, no Nobel prize winner—no one at all can give a detailed account of how the cilium, or vision, or blood clotting, or any complex biochemical process might have developed in a Darwinian fashion.”